Saturday, March 31, 2012

Essay on Southwest Airlines

Essay on Southwest Airlines

Why Southwest Airlines?
Choosing the company to work at is the very important task. When faced it, I was thinking about the wide range of possibilities that I have, and about how difficult it is to make the right choice. But on practice, it appeared to be easier. I was always dreaming of my future occupation as of the job, to which I can totally devote myself and use by best working skills and personal qualities for the benefit of the company. I was looking for the same benefits for me and my family, the company that will care.

Southwest Airlines is that very company I was looking for. Their mission is to provide the best quality of Customer Service, and it coincides with my vision of what it should look like. They have warm and friendly company spirit. Employees of the company are treated exactly the way they want to be and the same feedback is expected. Innovations and creativity are welcomed and expected for improving effectiveness of the company.
Southwest Airlines provide services for people, and it is not just business for the sake of business. Their primary goal is making people happy about using their services, and for me such idea is what I expect from my future work. Customer satisfaction as the key business principle finally is the key to success.

Along with the spirit and the ideas of the company management, Southwest Airlines propose the wide range of benefits for their employees that are very attractive for new comers. Company proposes travel privileges, including flying free for employees, starting from the first day of their work, as well as travel privileges for the whole their families. Employees are able to participate in profit sharing and in stock purchase plan, paying just 90% of the stock market value and the company will also pay all broker commissions.

Southwest Airlines propose the choice of several types of medical insurance depending on the person’s lifestyle, including PPO and HMO programs, at no cost, and minimal cost for the same medical plan options of their family. Basic dental coverage is also free for employees, additional services and the same services for family are available for minimal cost. The company also takes care of employees’ vision, by providing affordable vision care, which includes complete eye examinations and lenses and frames or contact lenses. Southwest Airlines also provide life insurance at no cost with coverage based upon annual salary.

Paid sick leaves, vacations and holidays are also available. Other benefits include: Dependant Care Spending Account, Long-Term Disability Insurance, Adoption Assistant Reimbursement Benefit, Child and Elder Care Resource and Referral Program, etc. So, Southwest Airlines take care of their employees and their successful, healthy and happy life.

In the conclusion I would like to mention, that it is very important for each person to feel comfortable at his job, to feel that he or she is valued and correspondently do his or her best at the job for the prosperity and well-being of the company and of himself.

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Music Essay

Baroque, Classical and Romantic Music Essay

1. Introduction
In this essay I will characterize each work that belongs to different period of music development- Hallelujah by George Frideric Handel, Concerto for Hard, Flute and Orchestra by Mozart and The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky. I will present form, texture, form, genre and performing medium of each work as well as unique characteristics. And then, contrast their differences and depict their similarities. Finally I will express my opinion regarding the musical work that I liked the most, try to attract attention to it and explain why this particular work is worth listening.

2. Hallelujah by George Frideric Handel
Hallelujah is the part of the oratorio Messiah written by Handel. Messiah has three parts; each presents definite events in Christ’s life. Hallelujah is the bright example of the baroque music. It is one of the most famous movements of Messiah, the Chorus that finishes the second part of the oratorio. The text for the Chorus was chosen from Revelation of New Testament, chapters 11 and 19. This musical piece can be characterized by changes in musical notations, and bright music ornamentation. There is a single emotion that is taken through the whole song with the dramatic and breathe-taking end. It can also be described with the use of counterpoints and polyphony.

3. Concerto for Harp Flute and Orchestra in C major by Mozart
This was the only piece of music that contained harp, as during the classical period, harp was only gaining its popularity and was not even included to the list of orchestral instruments.

The form of this musical piece is Sinfonia Concertante. The part of the harp doesn’t seem to be independent, as it sounds like the piano’s adaptation. Most harpistic effects are shown in cadenzas. It is very unusual, but all three movements of the piece have cadenzas. There are no rich glissandi and the counterpoint of the harp part doesn’t contain lush chords. So, three movements of this musical piece are played fast-slow-fast in the form of: Allegro, Andantino and Rondeau (Allegro). During Allegro, the orchestra plays both main themes. The first theme we are able to hear at once, and the second theme is presented by the horn. Both themes were written in the sonata form. Andantino presents short phrases introduced by strings, which later on lyrically extended. Then come variations of the main theme. During these movements, cadenza leads to the coda and the orchestra is totally concentrated on the lyrical theme. The last third part’s Rondeau harmonic form is presented in the scheme of A-B-C-D-C-B (cadenza) and again A (coda). It is not actually the typical rondo form, as musical themes from A, can be still heard in further sections.

In general, flute and harp in the piece have the main melody as well as supporting musical lines. There can be heard some pages when they are creating the counterpoint of each other, which holds breathes of the listeners.

4. The Nutcracker by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
The Nutcracker is the fairy-ballet composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. It consists of overture, two acts and three tableaus. The first tableau contains the scene of decorating and lightening of the Christmas tree, March, Little gallop of children and parents’ entrance, scene dansante, scene and dance of the grandfather, scene of guests departure in the day-time, and finally the scene of the battle. The second tableau consists of “a pine forest in winter” scene and the waltz of snowflakes. The thirst tableau of the second act contains the introduction scene, the scene of the Prince and Clara arrival, Divertissement (Spanish dance, Arabian dance, Chinese dance, Russian dance trepak, Dance of Reed-Flutes, and the Mother Ginger and the clowns), Waltz of the flowers, Pas de Deux: Adagio ( with two variations and coda), and the Final Waltz and Apotheosis. Overture has a kind of toy and mechanical music. There are two themes with modest repetitions (exposition and recapitulation). The first theme is light march, further decorated with various variations. The second theme is more lyrical and melodious. There is the drastic contrast between two themes, as the contrast between the action and the children’s dream.

Music from the ballet belongs to the Romantic period, but there can be heard composer’s reverence to Rococo music and the music of the late 18th century (Overture, Act 1).

Unique thing in the music of the ballet is the use of celesta instrument. The most famous solo theme is performed with this instrument- Dance of the Sugar Plum fairy (the second female variation from the Pas de Deux: Adagio).

5. Differences and similarities of three musical pieces.
All three pieces described earlier represent different musical periods- baroque, classical and romantic. The basic differences and similarities are stipulated by structural elements, which characterized definite period. Baroque music and Handel’s Hallelujah in structure and texture are more similar to the Mozart’s masterpiece. Baroque music had more music ornamentations, changes in musical notations, use of polyphony and counterpoint. The texture of classical music (Mozart) is homophonic, has less ornamentation, and possesses more articulated internal structure. There is modulation involvement in both styles, but more in classical piece. Classical music is also characterized by many varying emotions that are expressed in the short period of time, while baroque music has one single feeling and emotion that is gradually developed. Baroque music reaches its dramatic peak at the very end and in classical pieces music is developing to the dramatic climax and then trying to resolve it. Speaking about romantic music, I must say that even though it has some classical roots, it has its own outstanding features. Romantic music along with the Nutcracker encourages more tender emotions. It can be characterized with the modulations in increasingly remote keys and longer melodies, use of pivot note, freedom of form and design, and more personal expressions included. There are denser textures with dramatic contrasts and greater technical virtuosity shown.

6. My personal impressions
Hallelujah by George Frideric Handel is that rare music piece that it is not worth to say much, it is better to listen to it one time and everything will be clear. It is difficult to put this piece into word frames, and each every time I listen to it my emotions are risen to the totally different level of perception. For me this musical abstract is the remedy when I am emotionally depressed or overload with problems. It reminds me about which things in the world are important and which are not. And I start to understand that bothering with every day problems is meaningless, there are far more important things at our earth. Chorus Hallelujah is very inspiring to me and gives me the new breathe of fresh air. I am again full of enthusiasm about my life and feel myself capable to do everything I want, as each person is created unique and has his or her divine task at this earth. I guess that Handel fulfilled his task in the total extent, and by means of his music he is reminding people about their unique roles. It is touching people’s hearts and developed their best moral values. It is impossible to think about something bad or problematic while listening to the choir, the only thing that I could do is to stand and sing together crying. I don’t like to cry but these were tears that I could not control- they were a kind of freeing, from the bottom of my heart.

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Friday, March 30, 2012

"The Sandbox" and "Everyman" Essay

"The Sandbox" and "Everyman" Essay

The Nature of Death in The Sandbox and Everyman: Similarities and Differences This paper, by analyzing the main themes and characters in Everyman and The Sandbox, explores how the issue of death is perceived in each of these plays.

The Sandbox was an occasional play, a cynical, grotesque one, requested by the organizers of the Experimental Theater Festival in Spoleto (Green, 2-3). At times, Albee has commented that this play is one of the best of his work, almost faultless in its entirety of only fourteen minutes.

Grandma’s dying, as a symbol of strength and eternity represented through death, calls forth numerous associations from world literature. The subtext of this play can be found more readily earlier plays such as Everyman than in the plays written by Albee’s contemporaries. Mom and Dad’s pleasantries remind readers more of the futility and earthly matters than of any subtle matters embodied in the theatre works of 1960’s. This motif of conscious dying, though to a lesser extent, will return in a number of Albee’s later plays.

The Sandbox and Everyman are important not only for their usefulness in pointing out connection between life and death but as plays that help readers to reestablish the ancient European philosophical drama. The Sandbox makes the universe seem a place of absurd, whereas Everyman offers an extensive analysis of how absurd existence may become if real values are exchanged for pseudo ones. Both plays can be appreciated within the framework of the death portrayal, but individual approaches must be worked out. The message is motivated by values related to humanism; any theatrical production is motivated by the tragicomic rituals.

The problems evoked in The Sandbox may be close to those in Everyman, but in this play they have to do with the individuals who are not in the mainstream. The intellectuals are especially likely to show the signs of different treatment. Albee only slightly takes sides in this eternal quarrel. His primary aim is to show confrontation. The responses and sympathies of any given audience may change in accordance with generational inclination, but one thing is certain: wavering is provided, give or take whatever one likes (Barnet, 146-147).

The theme of death, combined with Albee’s analysis of the family, is very well represented in The Sandbox. The play presents issues of human cruelty supplemented by the death scene, when the grandmother is deposited in the sand to die by her mean, sarcastic daughter and son-in-law. The grandmother rebels against the vile treatment she receives at the hands of her family but accepts gracefully and graciously the ministrations of the angel of death, represented by a handsome young man. The difficulty of the situation is made memorable and emotionally realistic by the grandmother’s mixture of sarcasm and grief. In the end, the grandmother’s connection is with death, which means that she has accepted her life, even the fact of her family’s cruelty.

Most important, the angel of death is presented as almost a savior who comes to help those in need: a handsome young man whom the grandmother enlists to help her escape her family’s plan to get rid of her (Green, 2-3). The irony of the play is that the whole idea of escaping through death denies the life as such, which is supposed to be the sole purpose of everyone who came into this world.

Everyman (1495) is one of the most famous English morality plays, where the drama focuses on the coming of Death to an unprepared Everyman. Poetic in its language, and spare in its stage action, Everyman is widely read today and has proved highly effective in its numerous stage revivals. Most scholars believe that Everyman is a direct translation of the Dutch play Elckerlijc, rather than an original play in its own right--a circumstance which connects this drama to the rhetorical traditions of the Dutch Rederijker theatre, and helps to account for its unique qualities, among English moralities, of classical restraint and formality (Sellin, 64).

In the medieval times, allegorical stage plays were called moralities, a name that seems to guarantee that they did not miss their intended effect. Everyman is an allegory of man in the abstract; the other dramatis characters are Fellowship, Kinship, Property, Good Works, Contrition, Confession, Wisdom, Strength, Beauty, The Five Senses, and two far greater ones whose appearance in the opening scene sets the play into motion and gives it perennial significance: God the Father and Death (Sellin, 67).

The play opens, in imitation perhaps of the Book of Job, with a scene in heaven. God is heard, and was seen on the stage maybe, lamenting the depravity of His creatures on earth, who adore riches rather than Him who died for their sake. He calls for Death and commands him to go down to earth and summon Everyman before God’s judgment seat to give an accounting. Everyman, who is well dressed when Death accosts him, tries to obtain a respite by offering Death a bribe, but when Death cannot be tempted, Everyman asks, “May I come back again when I have shown my reckoning?” “Nevermore.” "May not someone go with me for company’s sake?” “If you can find one brave enough to go with you, he certainly may.” (Ryan, 729-733)

So Everyman sets out on a quest for a willing fellow pilgrim. Fellowship is the first to be appealed to. “Don’t despair,” he tells Everyman, “I would go with you were it to hell.” (Ryan, 732) But when it dawns upon him that he is invited on a journey from which there is no return, he hastily backs out. Kinship is equally rich with protestations of loyalty and just as unwilling to come along when he realizes what is expected from him. Then Everyman turns to Property, who answers with a sneer, “Did you think I would follow you beyond the world? I tell you flat, I won’t.”

Then he summons himself before Good Works. But Good Works is too weak to stand on his feet. “Are you so sick?” asks Everyman. “And you the cause of it. If you had satisfied my need, I would have cleared your reckoning, which now is blotted to your undoing.” (Ryan, 729-733) However, Good Works is in the mood to help him. He has a sister called Contrition. “She will guide you and show you in what frame of mind to go to this accounting.” Contrition takes him to Confession. “She is pure like a mountain rill; she will purge you.”

Through Confession, Good Works is restored to health. Good Works gives Everyman the robe of Remorse to wear and orders Wisdom, Strength, Beauty, and The Five Senses to stay by Everyman and give him advice and support. In their presence he makes his last will and testament, giving half his goods to the poor and the other half to the place where it is due to go (Sellin, 63). Then Contrition sends him to the priest for the extreme action, and when he returns they accompany him to the open grave. There Beauty, Strength, Wisdom, and The Five Senses all leave him at the eleventh hour. Even Contrition will not go with him all the way. He stays behind on the edge of the grave and speaks the final word.

Everyman’s adaptation to the stage was a master stroke. The play scored an immediate success. The many translations that were made of it in the sixteenth century testify to its continuous popularity. There is one in English, which was long regarded as the original play; but modern scholarship has proved convincingly that the Dutch text is the prior version (Sellin, 64-67). All drama in Western Europe is supposed to have sprung from the liturgy of the Church, which, in, turn closely dealt with the issue of death. In Dutch literature the earliest plays existing are of a character portraying death as something inevitable and sacred. Yet, this does not, of course, prove that in the Netherlands the development of the issue of death in drama was any different than in other places of the world. Unfortunately, no mystery plays of early date have been preserved, so that the beginnings of Dutch dramatic literature are hidden in obscurity.

Readers know more about the secular drama, thanks to the preservation of a Brussels manuscript containing four serious plays of a romantic cast and six coarse farces. One play of the former group was always followed by a farce; the two together made up a complete performance. Each mirrors on the stage an aspect of life, one its romance, the other its realism. Love guides the destinies of prince and gentle lady in the romantic play. The woe that is in marriage is never the woe of the lady and her prince. The couple who fall out in the farce belong to a lowly station in life. The romantic play is courtly and borrows its plot from fairy tales and romances of chivalry. In such a world where all is well because all ends well (ironically, with death), coincidence is not a fortune but an essential part of the simple scheme. The invocation to God with which each play opens implies that divine providence controls the destinies of the life and, ultimately, death.

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Thursday, March 29, 2012

Biopsychosocial Model Essay

Biopsychosocial Model Essay

The development of a human being is an extremely complicated process. At the same time, the development of psychology, biology and sociology contributed consistently to the understanding of the process of human development. In such a situation, it is extremely important to provide an individual with ample opportunities to develop physically, psychologically and socially. In other words, at each stage of the development, a person should reach the definite level of the bio-psycho-social development and the better we know all the stages of individual’s development the more can we assist to the formation of well-developed personality. In this respect, children are particularly susceptible to external influences of their social environments because childhood is the formation period of the personality.

Basically, it is possible to notice significant changes and characteristics, while observing an individual. At this respect, I would like to analyze the bio-psycho-social development of my cousin who is just eight years old. At the moment he attends school, though he is not really experienced in this regard. On analyzing his physiological development, it should be said that basically all organs and systems are formed in accordance with his age.
His behavior may be characterized by high motor activities, since it is still quite difficult for him to keep focus on one and the same activity for a considerable period of time. At the same time, his body keeps growing and he needs a lot of physical activity and at the moment his body is formed and basic living systems function normally.

As for the psychological development of my cousin, I should say that he has already entered the concrete operational stage of the development, which is characterized by the development of logical thinking. His thinking is concrete and he may have problems with logical evaluation of some abstract notions, such as friendship, love, etc. What is meant here is the fact that he can think logically about concrete events and he makes logical conclusions. For instance, he could presuppose that it would be raining if the sky is grey, but he can hardly logically evaluate events on the level of implicate. In fact, denotative thinking still prevails in his mind.

At the same time, he does not need to correlate his motor activity and the acquisition of knowledge about his environment, i.e. learning process, since at the moment he is able to learn the surrounding world by means of logical evaluation, though, it is necessary to remind that his logic is still underdeveloped and cannot overcome denotative barrier.

At this stage of the development, the process of socialization of my cousin accelerates. Basically, this is the result of the new social experience which he acquires while attending a school. It is necessary to underline that parents still play a very important role in his life and they remain the main authorities for him. I should say that he really admires his father and he is always talking how much he wishes to be like his father when he grows up. However, teachers at school become more and more significant for him that indicates to the fact that adults still remain the highest authority for him, though his communication with his peers increase their social significance for him too.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that my cousin has reached the concrete operational stage of the development. At this stage, he can act and think logically about concrete events. In his social environment, parents and adults are still dominant authorities for him.

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Essay on Richard Rodriguez

Essay on Richard Rodriguez

Is Rodriguez still a Scholarship boy?
When we study in college we always envy those, who are successful in their studies, those who receive scholarships and are appreciated by teachers. The desire to be the first and the best is natural. The only question remains - in what the best? Being best in everything is the same as being best in nothing. How it is possible to understand what person wants to be best at? Richard Rodriguez is telling the story of his passion for studies; the price of studies and the reaction of his mates and teachers. It is obvious that he is no longer that little boy who wants to be accepted by society, who is ashamed for illiteracy of his parents and who reads books just for the sake of reading, not understanding and analyzing what he is reading about. He is no longer a scholarship boy, who divided his world into two separate entities- home and school. Scholarship boy: good student, troubled son. …He takes his first step toward academic success, away from his family.

“Achievement of Success” is a very deeply critical essay about the way towards understanding what is important in life and what not, about moral values and eternally essential things in each person’s life. Rodriguez critically evaluated his behavior when striving to get the knowledge the possible, as well as his attitudes to his parents. A few minutes later, I heard my father speak to my teacher and felt ashamed of his labored, accented words. Then guilty for the shame. I felt such contrary feelings. But parents were not ashamed at all. They were proud of their children’s academic successes and awards and were ready to laugh of their accent and from the fact that are not educated enough. They were wise enough just to love their children and to understand that good education should not change anything in person, including feelings to relatives.

In the fourth grade he started his passionate reading marathon. He was reading books not for fun or for pleasure. Probably he was not mature enough to read the kind of books he was. He was a very passionate reader, but not in the good meaning of the notion. Mainly he was not understanding what he was reading about, just collecting books that he read and collecting different opinions upon life and matters. Merely bookish, I lacked a point of view when I read. Rather, I read in order to acquire a point of view. He was not self-assured. Knowledge was the only thing he could rely on, and not his own thoughts. Probably he felt himself not clever and worthy enough to have his point of view and to express it openly. He had brilliant memory, but untrained mind. He was able to memorize a lot of things what others said, but was unable to think critically and analyze. Rodriguez quotes from Richard Hoggarth’s “The Uses of Literacy”: “All his ideas are clearly borrowed. He seems to have no thought of his own. He chatters while his listeners smile- their look one of disdain.”

It is very good to read a lot when the person knows what he is doing that for. From books we are able to increase our knowledge regarding historical events, watch other people’s lives, analyze the style and ideas, the author is trying to denounce. Without critical thinking and elements of evaluation reading is meaningless. Rodriguez was even unable to answer his mother’s question regarding what he sees in his books. Probably it was the question he was afraid and was not ready to answer.

There was no meaning in his studies, it was the main problem. He just wanted to be the best student, and when he achieved that status and even started writing a dissertation on English Renaissance literature in London, he understood that he is lonely without his family.

To my opinion, Rodriguez is a very happy person, as he was able to critically analyze his experience and make proper conclusions of it. He understood that family values cannot be substituted by any others. It is each person’s divine gift. Family will always love you even if you are not smart enough, or if your college grades are not high. It is unconditional love each person deserves and must enjoy in the fullest extent. It cannot be measured with educational level, as well as other material factors.

In the conclusion, I would like to say that definitely Rodriguez has learned a lot form his prior experience, as I as well did, and he is definitely not the same anxious imitative pupil.

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Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Political Science Essay Example

Political Science Essay Example

Economic Platform for Presidential hopefuls in 2008
The economic package proposals of two presidential candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Willard Mitt Romney are worth evaluating. First of all it must be mentioned that they have rather uncommon political views (for example the questions of embryonic stem cells, energy and oil, homeland security, immigration, Iraq war, universal health and others) and moreover they belong to different parties. At this turning point Hillary Clinton is the leading candidate in the United States presidential election in the year 2008 from the Democratic Party, while Mitt Romney is a representative of the Republic Party and one of the potential candidates.
Gene Sperling, Hillary Clinton’s economic adviser supposes that Clinton’s economic plan is rather successful especially at the moment when some candidates are out of presidential race. Hillary Clinton called upon to the US Congress to accept an urgent plan of economy stimulation for preventing of possible recession in the year of presidential election. The plan was developed by the experts of Clinton’s pre-election staff. The expenses on realization of this project can make up 70 milliards of dollars and in a perspective reach a sum of 110 milliards of dollars.

So, this is an immediate help for thousands of families, suffering as a result of crisis at the market of the mortgage lending, a great sum of money which must be divided among 37 million of scanty means Americans in the form of subsidies on energy vectors and unemployment doles and of course large part of this money should go on tax compensative payments for Americans with middle and small profits. Speaking about Mitt Romney it must be said that his economic plan tries to concern all the Americans, especially taxpayers, individuals, homeowners and business.

So, to be more concrete, Romney’s economic package proposal concerning individuals stipulates for cutting the lowest tax rate to 7,5%, excluding of taxes on workers over the age of 65 (as these old people have already earned their pensions and social insurance), making the middle class taxes free. In the sphere of business Mitt Romney offers the encouragement of business investment (It means cutting of taxes for businesses), reducing of corporate tax to 20 per cents during the period of 2 years in order to encourage the capital flow in the country. For homeowners Romney suggests the reform of Federal Housing Administration.

To sum these two economic programs it must be mentioned that completely all candidates independently from their advisers and helpers make a lot of mistakes in their economic plans and only practice can obviously depict whether they are able to fuctionate and be successful.

No doubt Hillary Clinton is thinking globally, as she is progressive experienced politician, while Mitt Romney is considered to be a new face on a political horizon.

But in general we see that Hillary operates with huge sums of money, making visual, how the finances should work and where they should be spent, while Romney’s plan just gives only a perspective, shows a simple envelope without its contents. In such a way the results of Hillary Clinton’s economic package proposals will be more positive and affective, as they are based on a logical, qualified, financially counted background.

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Friday, March 23, 2012

Faith and Theology Essay

Faith and Theology Essay

The Significance, Meaning and Role of Faith and Theology
In this paper I will compare Augustine and John Paul II reflections on the meaning of faith and theology. I will carefully investigate upon their interpretations and opinions regarding the significance and role of Scripture, Tradition and reason. I will also express my own opinion regarding assigned theme.

Augustine is said to be an influential Latin writer, was converted to Christianity, and was the Bishop of Hippo. Augustine wrote On Christian Doctrine where he expressed his ideas and argued for the appropriation of classical culture. He wrote that Christian religion should take and accept things from existing traditions. He gave an example of Egypt people who were pagans, but still they possessed gold and silver, which God gave to them. And Christians have taken it for the better use by the command of God.
So, Augustine inspired Christians to take not only material things from Egyptians, but also use their developed tradition in the right way. He emphasized on the fact that pagan tradition was not totally incompatible with Christian tradition and some truths can be properly used for the proclamation of the gospel. It would have been the task of Christians to accept the tradition and then just to separate things that would have corresponded to their beliefs and claims. Augustine wrote that wisdom as the general notion is eternal and common and each tradition have the possibility to use it and interpret in its own way. Augustine gave an example of Moses, a righteous Christian and a servant of God, who accepted and learned the wisdom of pagan Egyptians.

John Paul II was our contemporary (1920-2005), who wrote Fides and Ratio. In his work he paid very much attention to the relation of Scripture and knowledge people get from it, as well as faith and reason. He compared knowledge conferred by faith with the knowledge conferred by reason and indicates that these two notions are very much connected. John Paul II says that Biblical texts should be read without any prejudices, and not through the frame of reference of the particular tradition, as only in this case it will be possible to distinguish that faith is common and universal, it is the same in Israel and in Egypt and people should be keen enough to see that and to absorb cultural heritage and the knowledge upon the civilizations that do not exist any more. He was sure that knowledge of faith and reason are united. People obtain information regarding what is going on in the world, about historical events, then process and analyze, but John Paul II claims that without faith they are not able to accept it in the right way, it appears to be ‘foreign to the process’. Faith is the thing that connects people with the Creator of everything that is described and what can be analyzed and observed, and without faith there is no sense in everything happening. John Paul II wrote: “Faith sharpens the inner eye, opening the mind to discover in the flux of events the workings of Provenance”. He also wrote that a person can decide what way to go and what decision to make, using the reason, but it is God who decides and directs the man. And that very direction is faith that should be in man’s heart, it is a knowledge about God and everything in the world that cannot be described in words, it is either exists or not. And there cannot be any competition between reason and faith and the kind of knowledge they provide, as they are totally different and still inseparable. A man is not a man without reason, as well he cannot be full without faith. Faith is the mean of communication with God, and reason is the one of with what God had created on the Earth.

So, after thorough examination of readings of both authors it becomes obvious that John Paul II uses more human psychology and investigation in it, when Augustine is more abstract about themes of knowledge and its usage in traditions. John Paul II writes more personal, to each man in particular to decide how to relate to reason and faith, while Augustine writes to the whole nation of Christians to use best from existing traditions, not to reject things without exploration for the adequate usage. Augustine uses more a kind of “cultural approach” for delivering his ideas regarding knowledge and John Paul II speaks individually to each man.

Even though approaches and audiences of John Paul II and Augustine are different, as well as the time they lived and wrote, they have common general idea concerning wisdom and knowledge- things that as simple information can be interpreted in millions of ways, but with the interpretation their true sense would not be changed. This true sense is probably faith, that is in each person’s heart and which directs the kind of interpretation or tradition people choose for themselves. There is no right or wrong tradition or interpretation, they are all equal, and it is just the man’s choice what to believe.

I totally agree with both authors. In my life faith is the most important things. It helps me to distinguish between what is right or wrong for me, as well as to accept worthily everything what is going on, as I understand that it was all created by God and cannot do harm to me and to my spirit. Bible as the historical scripture had always been interesting to me not just from the stand point of my religion and developed traditions, but also as the only source to the information I am not able to get somewhere else. When I am searching for knowledge I try to use the primary sources in order to be able to perceive it from my faith, or when it is not possible, as Bible was written by people and it is their interpretation of what God told them, I still try to choose sources that were written by righteous people, who thought and wrote critically and independently. I am for freedom of faith, intelligibility of knowledge and true wisdom!

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Thursday, March 22, 2012

Comparison Essay Example

Comparison Essay Example

Comparison of Frederick Douglass” An American Slave” and Plato’s “The Allegory of the Cave”
The Allegory of the Cave is Socrates’ famous dialogue with Glaucon, which was written by Plato. The choice of characters is not accidental. Plato, a son of noble parents, wanted to become a politician, but Socrates had changed his life. Plato started his philosophical career and later even opened the first university, the Academy. In The Allegory of the Cave Plato uses the image of the cave to describe how people are limited by the predicament. People see only in front of their nose and just can not look around. Plato proposes his possible solution from this situation.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself is Frederick Douglass’ famous autobiographical work written in 1845. Douglass was born in the century of slavery but aimed all his efforts to escape it and so became an active participant of the abolitionist movement. His work is an active protest against slavery. His story is based on real events from his biography and it gives him a possibility to describe the relations between slaves and slave-owners in a real manner.

At first sight, Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave and Douglass’ Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself are two absolutely different works that even can not be compared: they are written in absolutely different time, by different authors and deal with different themes. Plato is a philosopher, while Douglass is the fighter against slavery. Nevertheless, it is only first opinion. In fact, these works are united by one global theme: human nature and its limitations.

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself is a lesson that learns to be a human. Douglass in his book does not accuse slave-owners in that pass of events. Douglass shows his readers that these are slaves who are not able to open their eyes and minds and change the world around them. The author says that “slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs” (Douglass, 47) and this comparison with animals is not accidental. In the society slaves are not humans: they have not right but, what is more frightening, they do accept themselves as humans. The ideology of slavery in slaves’ minds does not allow them to overcome the slavery itself. Douglass insists that slaves, as well as their owners, are rather made than born. Taking this fact into account, the opposite transformation is possible: “You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man” (Douglasss, 107). The change should occur in slaves’ minds and only then it is possible to change the reality and literacy should become the turning point in this process.

Plato, actually, also deals with the theme of human nature in his work. He states that people being born in a definite surrounding accept its laws without a question and follow them not even thinking about other ways to exist: “Here they have been from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads” (Plato). People are not able to turn their heads and can see only shadows of the world, while real world is just behind their heads. This work presents Plato’s philosophical vision of this world: it is impossible to transfer the knowledge, the world can be perceived only intellectually but the person himself must reveal it being only directed by his teacher. The world is good in its nature but its goodness depends on the perspective of perception. The person should try to get rid of all chains and open his mind and then he will see real things, not their shadows: “Last of he will be able to see the sun, and not mere reflections of him in the water, but he will see him in his own proper place, and not in another; and he will contemplate him as he is” (Plato).

Both authors, Plato and Douglass use numerous rhetorical and literal devices which make their works interesting for readers and easy for comprehension. Passionate style adopted by Douglass and logical reasoning used by Plato attract people’s attention to the eternal questions about human nature.

To draw a conclusion, Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave and Douglass’ Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself are works about a human who is limited by his social surrounding and norms and laws that exist in this society. Only being able to break all the “chains” and open his mind the human could see the real world.

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Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay

Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay

Explication of Ode on a Grecian Urn
Ode on a Grecian Urn is considered to be the third of the five odes written by John Keats, an author who died a young man, he was aware of the fact that he was dying of tuberculosis. That is why the ideas of mortality and immortality are skillfully and deeply explicated into this ode. It was written only two years before his death when his thoughts were preoccupied with meditation on life and death sense, their inevitability and symbolism. For many readers it is not very easy to comprehend the sense of the poem, as they come upon the action that is already taking place without any preamble. In his poem John Keats “discusses immortality and things frozen in a state of perfection, such as the urn” (Hirschman).

From the very beginning when one reads the poem for the first time it seems that its tone is light and the poet who wrote it is rather happy and even joyous, but this impression is surely delusive. As though the poem is multiplayer and one has to find out the underlying meanings of words and phrases, discover the real mood of its author. So called first layer is superficial, it lies on the surface, it created positive atmosphere while reading as Keats tells of happy love, happy boughs, sweet melodies, lovers, etc. Actually, the poet uses the word happy five times in the third stanza, this may mislead an inconsiderate reader. But if to examine the ode more closely, it has biographic motives of its creator and the poem is generally morbid. The ode is a bright example of how philosophy and literature are interdependent, how one sphere can explain, clarify the other. Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn is famous for many of its lines and the poet is often quoted, but the last stanza of the poem that is deluded, puzzles the majority of readers for nearly two centuries already. It is one of the most explicated and controversial poetic lines in literature. Jenna Hirschman in her Explication of Keats: Ode on a Grecian Urn states that the following lines are proclaimed as the deepest lines of the whole work: “Beauty is truth, truth beauty, - that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know” (Keats 49-50).

But Keats’ story-teller and the urn itself give us information about events from their own standpoint. The definite meaning of those lines is dubious and scholars cannot agree to whom the last thirteen lines are addressed. There are various combination variants: urn to reader, poet to urn, poet to reader, and even poet to what is painted on the urn. Jenna Hirschman suggests the reader to imagine that the narrator examines the urn panel by panel or picture by picture and each of them tells its own story (Hirschman). The first one is panoramic, it gives general data, the first lines make us feel that some work of art is forgotten and here Keats asks a number of various questions, united by common theme of sorrow described in the legend which is unfortunately lost in the course of time. Keats states: “Though foster-child of Silence and slow Time” involve the characters’ connection with time, their mortal nature is emphasized. The story is somehow lost in time and main characters are already dead. Words, used by Keats, such as quietness, silence, slow time reveal the idea of death. All the people who participated in the process of creation of the urn, those who told the legend are dead, and nothing can be changed. The narrator has a constrained feeling to create a new story as the legend is dead and brings the main characters of it back to life with the help of the lines of his poem. The narrator looks at the urn, while explaining what he sees there he sets it all in his own mood and subjective comprehension of the scenes portrayed. The urn for him is a symbol of death, as Keats realizes immortality does not exist: “Forever warm and still to be enjoyed, Forever panting, and forever young” (Keats 26-27).

It can be noticed that the author attacks both the poet and the artist saying that their creations are “spirit ditties” (Keats 14). He glorifies and then contradicts himself, it is a kind of a paradox. In the second stanza he depicts lovers, “the scene described is one of loss and unhappiness. The scene is frozen in time: the season is stagnant and the lovers can never be reunited” (Hirschman). Lovers cannot be together with their unfulfilled desire. And the beauty of art is somehow doubtful in the context of describing this unfulfilled desire and unhappiness of two people who love each other. As the legend is lost in time one can only guess what the action in it was and if the lovers can be united in a better world. But John Keats asks the reader not to grieve, because it is possible that lovers feel much better than those living on the earth. It reminds us again of a paradoxical dilemma of those mortal people whose lives are inevitably limited to definite period time. May be it is better for lovers not to kiss and not to date because love can have distressing aftertaste and echoes in their afterlives. The third stanza still concentrates on lovers and Keats exclaims: “More happy love!” (Keats 25) several times and later on tells of beauty and truth. But still he emphasizes how he understands true love in the following line: “Leaves a heart high-sorrowed and cloyed” (Keats 29). The opinion of fulfilled love is given for the reader to speculate upon it and maybe to compare it with the affection the described lovers had. Keats implements the poet into the work, but he is hardly visible in the lines about love. He renders the idea that the poet, the author may be quickly forgotten though his works are immortal and can withstand the calamities of time.

Masterpieces outlast the creator and it is proved by us at every step, when we remember the song or the novel and know quite few about the creator. It is one of the main problems touched upon in Ode on a Grecian Urn (Hirschman). Maybe the fears of John Keats are expressed in this thought as he does not want to be forgotten, he says “Beauty is truth, truth beauty” (Keats 49). The general view that beauty is truth and vice versa and, what is more, the urn’s message equalizing beauty and truth is rather ambiguous, even if we perceive this urn as an object of eternal consolation. John Keats also points out the profound silence, it is the only thing which removes us from “breathing human passion”, “burning”, etc. which were shown by him before. The reader as well as the narrator are time-bound, but the urn seems to have withstood the eternity. It can be clearly seen that though Keats says that beauty is truth he understands that it is not a gospel truth at all, it really calms him down, seems to have some reason and a logical explanation (Hirschman). To a certain extent Keats’ urn may not be referred to just as an object rendering the legend, but some elaborate code, it can be interpreted as a key to a code, an allegory.

John Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn is rather controversial and is considered to be among the most frequently and zealously discussed works in literature. Being multiplayer it continues to awake interest and surprise readers with its hidden deep philosophical sense.

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Monday, March 19, 2012

Essay on Rationalization

Essay on Rationalization

“Modernism may be seen as an attempt to reconstruct the world in the absence of God,” – said Bryan Appleyard, an English journalist. Indeed, the Modernist movement has embodied the creative power of human being, focusing on improvement of our environment. Modernism was born in the end on 19th century, affecting diverse areas of life – architecture, sculpture, painting, literature, music, and other types of art. However, the most demonstrative impact of this cultural movement can be seen in graphic design. In this context, Modernism gave a birth to many techniques that remain very popular in contemporary design. Photomontage is, probably, one of the most powerful tools among them.

Photomontage is one of the most powerful techniques in modern graphic design. It is a process of combining several photographs into one composite image, giving a wide range of possibilities. The meaning of photomontage is hard to overestimate – almost every contemporary commercial design implements this approach to more or less extent. This technique appeared in the middle of nineteenth century, though it gained a wide popularity in the beginning of twentieth century.
The development of photomontage was influenced by diverse historical and cultural processes, and the movement of Modernism had a sound impact on this area. Pioneers of photomontage remain true icons even now, and their works inspire both modern designers and audience. In the current paper we will explore the example of modernist photomontage – the artwork by John Heartfield “Rationalization is on the March”, created in 1927 for Der Knuppel.

John Heartfield is the anglicized name of Helmut Herzfeld, the famous German artist of photomontage. Born in 1891, this talented artist and photographer was a member of the Communist Party of Germany. He has always criticized German politic power, participating in various movements and strikes in order to support communist ideas. Heartfield founded a satirical magazine Die Pleite with caricaturist George Grosz. After that he became very interested in photomontage, and his career as an artist began. Participating in Berlin Dada, the anti-war cultural movement during the World War I, John Heartfield started creating montages expressing social and political themes. Very soon John met Bertolt Brecht, whose Marxist views influenced the artist soundly. Heartfield began creating artworks representing political ideas and events in his authentic manner. Publishing his works in communist periodicals, he became very famous rather quickly, mostly for his Hitler-criticizing art. John Heartfield’s “Rationalization is on the March” is considered one of the classic examples of modernist photomontage.

“Rationalization is on the March” was the artwork John Heartfield made for German magazine. In that period the most distributed way to portray photomontage work was placing it in newspaper or magazine as a cover or illustration. Most of Heartfield works were published this way, shaping the history of photomontage development. Being the pioneer of photomontage technique, Heartfield has created this famous artwork in his own authentic style combining several photographs and text. “Rationalization is on the March” presents a good example of photomontage art in its form and content, both from the standpoints of historical and cultural context.

The montage is made in a regular Heartfield’s form, using multiple photos combined in a single composition. Unlike many other artists of the period, John Heartfield did not focus on artistic side of his works, implementing rather simple techniques. Thus, the current artwork resembles magazine or newspaper poster, made for political agitation. Actually, the technical side of the process of present art creation was not very difficult. Heartfield selected several images from his huge collection of multiple photographs, cut them out, put together in a single composition, and took a photo of final composite image. In the “Rationalization is on the March” the author used more than ten separate photographs of various objects, including various industrial mechanisms, stopwatch, pipes, tables, factory pipelines details, hatch, lever, and other industrial objects. The elements were accurately cut out from photos, however they were deliberately pasted in the final image in pseudo-inaccurate way to resemble chaotic composition. Besides the photos, we can see a sketch painting of an industrial factory on the old paper. This image is just another photo that serves as a good background for the montage. There are also some typography elements in this artwork, which van be seen on the photo of German newspaper and some document. The final image is composed in a single picture portraying a figure of running man. The stopwatch pictures the man’s head and face, while his limbs are made of industrial objects and details. The man holds a newspaper in his hand. The montage is made in a very precise and accurate technique.

Besides the form, every photomontage, just like every other artwork, has another important component – the content. The semantic side oftentimes plays very significant role in this technique. In “Rationalization is on the March” the message is a main priority. John Heartfield has always emphasized the message in his montages, paying special attention to content. Unlike most of other artists of Dada movement, John always focused on the message rather than artistic component; hence his works took a special place in the design history. Just like in his other works, in “Rationalization is on the March” Heartfield addressed significant social and political issues. Being an activist of anti-war movement and pro-communist propagandist, Heartfield was a serious critic of German political power. His attitude is clearly seen in all his works, especially in his famous series of satiric montages portraying Adolph Hitler. In the present artwork the author’s communist views are expressed in his regular manner. In “Rationalization is on the March” Heartfield criticizes the policy of capitalist industrial rationalization. Being an activist of communist regime, the artist put the illustration on the cover of Der Knuppel (The Cudgel), the satiric magazine where he worked as an editor, in order to address the initiative of rationalization. The artwork portrays the illogical nature of industrial rationalization, expressing the opinion of the entire KPD (Communist Party) that opposed the Nazi regime. In the photomontage, a figure composed of separate objects resembles a man in a hurry. He runs somewhere, with a newspaper in his hand, consisting of industrial details. The message of the image is obvious – Heartfield expressed the anti-humanist essence of the policy. The figure of industrial objects symbolizes what human being may eventually become if following all the policies of Nazis. Laughing at this initiative, the author at the same time is deeply sorry for what is going on in political life of his country.

The historical context of John Heartfield’s “Rationalization is on the March” interacts soundly with its cultural meaning. Made in the 1927, this artwork addresses the most acute issues of that period. World War I, the development of fascism in Germany, the dilemma between right and left wings of politics, and other significant historical processed influenced Heartfield works soundly. In the difficult period the artist tried to put all his efforts to help German society to avoid the rise of fascism, making it in his own artistic way. “Rationalization is on the March”, just like other Heartfield’s artworks, reflects the reality in the most demonstrative way.

The cultural meaning of John Heartfield’s work is also hard to overestimate. He was a true pioneer of photomontage – the one who, with other modernists, gave a name to this technique. The unique style of the artist became very popular, remaining a symbol of freedom and satirical manner. Heartfield’s leftwing political views helped him to build friendly relationships with Soviet Communists, and his art technique influenced soundly the entire movement in visual design - Soviet constructivist posters. Unlike any other art direction, modernist photomontage combined the art and reality in the acute but relevant way. And John Heartfield’s artworks, including “Rationalization is on the March”, present the best example of this relevance.

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Sunday, March 18, 2012

Essay on Mobile Phones

Essay on Mobile Phones

Usage of Mobile Phones in Public Places - Pro or Contra?
When the person is being too critical to the other – it always makes me think about his/her personal reasons for doing that. Once I was having my favorite strawberry milkshake in one fast-food restaurant. It was the lunch time, but there were still not many people around and a lot of tables which were unoccupied. I was sitting in the corner behind the column near the window, as I like to watch people passing by and thinking about my stuff. My mobile phone is always turned on vibration mode or “no sound and vibration” mode, as I consider that I should not impose music that I like as ring tone to be heard by other people. I prefer enjoy it when I am alone or in the company of like-minded people. So, I was drinking my shake and saw that my grandmother calls me. I answered the call and start to talk with her about my studies, leisure time and everything that grandmothers are interested in. I was not talking too loud and there were almost no people around, and I tried to speak so that even they were not able to hear what I am talking about. In about two minutes someone touched my shoulder and loudly, so that everyone in that section of the restaurant hear said that my chattering disturbs her from having dinner in calm atmosphere in the very aggressive and hysteric manner.
All attention was attracted to us. I calmly finished my talk with grandmother, but she was staying next to me and looking at me till I put the phone down. I was starting to be confused and even afraid about her further actions. Then, she started lecturing me about use of cell phones in public places and that I showed no respect to the environment I am in. I was shocked and politely asked to excuse my unacceptable behavior. Of course, it was predominantly an ironic excuse and the situation stopped frightening me and starting to be amusing. Then she suddenly calmed down and returned to her lunch. After some time, a group of girl of age around 14-15 settled in the middle of the hall and started to speak and laugh loudly. They were so loud, that in about five minutes I was already au courant that “Ms. Adams is an old witch and Harry pays no attention on girls and is busy all the time playing football”. I already finished my shake and it was already time for me to go to the swimming-pool, but I decided to follow the reaction of the lady, which showed so much dissatisfaction with my unethical behavior in the public place. But she showed no signs of discontent and just quickly and silently finished her lunch, answered the call saying that she will be in two minutes and left. But other people in the restaurant starting hushing on them, but girls didn’t care- they were having fun. I must say that girls were not making me uncomfortable, as fast-food restaurant is not the place where people are supposed to keep silence, but the reaction of that woman remains a mystery for me. I think that people have right to talk on cell phones where they want to, but they should keep to ethical standards of behavior and there are definite places where mobile phones are absolutely unacceptable – cinemas, theatres, restaurants, church, and some other, where mobile calls and talks may disturb other people’s attention and personal space. Public transportation is not the place for long empty private talks about the relationships, health and other things that people around do not want to hear, but they are supposed to, as they are taking the same but and can’t escape from it and why should they escape if they have the same rights for being delivered to the place of their destination on time.

I usually go to the cinema with my friends every week. We enjoy old and new movies, eat popcorn and do everything to feel ourselves relaxed and comfortable. Before screening starts, we always turn off our mobiles and in case when some urgent calls occur, we just leave to talk outside. But what can say to the person, whose mobile phone rings in the most interesting and breathe-taking moment of the movie with the annoying song and the owner of it just answers it? Hushing and saying that it is not polite and acceptable behavior doesn’t work, as it also distracts attention of other people from the movie. The only solution is the ban of mobile phones in the cinemas during the screening, and in case when the ban is violated- the person should be asked to leave. I suggest that it is fair, when people know that there should be no phone calls and they are aware of possible consequences of their inadequate behavior. It is the same situation with using mobile phones in the theatres, but there, the disrespect is shown not only to people who came to enjoy the play of the actors and brilliant stage-manager’s work, but also to those, who are acting on the stage. Of course, actors are professionals who will not be disturbs with such silly things and they will continue acting, but they must be respected along with their art. There are places, such as church, where people should keep silence and mobile phones are absolutely unacceptable.

Last summer I was visiting a small village in France, in Burgundy, where young people from over the Europe and other places gather together to talk, to pray and spend time together. There are workgroups established to talk about world peace issues, and there are also prayers three times a day. The atmosphere there is amazingly friendly, calm and inspiring. In the church there use of cell phones is forbidden. There are people that go around the rows and ask to turn off cell phones before the service begins and what is the most interesting their requests are not aggressive. They are just asking friendly. And it is each person’s choice to choose the pattern of behavior and whether to show respect to the place s/he is in or neglecting it, as, of course, in case if the cell phone rings, the person will not be asked to leave the church, s/he will just be showing his real attitude and nature. I do not deny the cases when people simply forget to turn off sound of their phones, but such cases are not such a big deal when they are single and the person just quickly turns the phone off. I am the furious opponent of the mobile phones usage in the public places, and I understand that we are all people that have jobs, children, friends and parents that we want to be in touch with. The thing that I am supporting is that everything is good when used moderately, and ethical unwritten standards of behavior were not abolished. And if we are people, we should respect primarily ourselves and then other people, as changing personal attitudes will change the attitudes of other people. And if one chooses to go to the church, to the restaurant for romantic dinner or business lunch, to the theatre, cinema or any other place where people supposed not to be loud- he better turn off his source of disturbance. And even better, correspondent authorities should prohibit phone usage and impose definite punishment for disobedience.

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Essay on Irony

Essay on Irony

Irony as the Brush Tool of Our Lives
When John Hinckley was trying to assassinate Ronald Reagan, he didn’t succeeded in getting into the target, but the bullet ricocheted off the protected window of the Presidential limousine and stuck the chest of the President. It is one of the brightest examples of situational irony, as protected window was primarily assigned to protect President’s life, but appeared to be the reason of his being shot.

So, irony is referred to as the literary mean, in which there can be followed the discordance between what speaker says and what s/he actually means (Knox 45). There can be distinguished modern and more classical types of irony. Modern irony can be enclosed in life examples of discrepancy of what is said and what happens in reality. There is also the term “Socratic” irony, which was offered by Aristotle, but differs greatly of what we call irony today (Colebrook 67).
The example of Socratic irony can be parents who answer to their child’s question regarding presets under Christmas tree that they have no idea about who put them their. Another example- is educational system, when the professor who is supposed to know the material and information upon definite subject is asking his students about it, instead of telling them what he knows. Socratic irony is bordering with lie, as, for example, when the person doesn’t what to speak about definite topic, which in reality is not that serious, answers that s/he has no idea about what s/he is being asked.

There can be argues about what should be called irony and what should not, but in general it should not be necessarily funny, but should draw distinction between understanding the reality and what actually happens or between what is said and what is meant or commonly acknowledged.

There are three basic types of ironies: verbal, dramatic and situational. There are also some subtypes, or similar types. Verbal irony refers to incongruity of expression and intention. Dramatic (tragic) irony is the congruity of expression and awareness. And finally situational irony refers to the congruity of intention and result, when the achieved result of the action appears to be opposite of the expected one. Similar to situational irony are cosmic and historical ironies, but about them a little bit later.

Verbal irony is the only type of irony that is produced intentionally by the speaker. For example, when the person is intended to communicate that s/he is angry with something, but says that s/he is happy. People use verbal ironies on the everyday basis, as when someone is get wet under the rain, s/he returns home and hears from his relatives: “Oh, you look great!” Depending in the situation and the people’s perceptions, it can be equally funny and abusive.

Ironic similes are said to be the form of the verbal irony, as they rely on the use of common knowledge and are intended to express something that in reality do not correspond to the intended definition. As an example, can be called such comparisons: as fast as turtle, as hairy as lemon, as cool as the forest fire, as salt as sugar, etc. The source to define the disparity of concepts should be easily understandable and stereotypical knowledge is commonly used.

Verbal irony can be easily confused with sarcasm. But there are special characteristics that distinguish sarcasm from verbal irony, such as ridicule is said to be an essential part of sarcasm, and sarcasm also includes the definite part of personal criticism against the person involved. In general, there are several types of verbal irony: sarcasm, hyperbole, double entendre, jocularity, understatement and rhetorical questions (Hutcheon 51).

Tragic or dramatic irony can be only found in fictional context. According to this form of irony, the actions and words of the characters differ from what happens in reality. Ancient Greek drama is an outstanding classic example of dramatic irony with “Oepidus the King” of Sophocles. Tragic irony is in some extent the people’s perception of the reality and their acting in accordance with their perceptions. The sad example of tragic irony of Renaissance period can be called the Shakespeare’s “Romeo and Juliet”, when Romeo finds his beloved death-like asleep, and because of lack of knowledge about what actually happened, Romeo kills himself. When Juliet awakes and sees Romeo dead, she kills herself “again” with the knife. The example of dramatic irony is O. Henry’s story “The Gift of the Magi”, it is not tragic, but the irony is so touchy that one can even cry. It tells about the young couple who are too poor to buy Christmas gifts to each other. But each of them has one precious thing that means a lot to them. She has beautiful, long hair and he has heirloom pocket watch. So, she cuts of her hair to buy the watch-chain for her husband, and he sells his watch to buy the set of combs for his wife’s amazing hair. As a result, they both lost things that they valued and loved in their lives and received nothing. It is equally sad, funny, touchy and preachy.

And the final type of irony is situational irony that is disparity between the expected result and obtained result. Cosmic irony and historical irony are very similar to situational irony. Irony of fate or cosmic irony refers to the situations when the contrast between the reality and human ideas can be observed. For example, Jim Fixx was popularizing jogging in the 70s of the 20th century and died at the age of 52 from heart attack. The irony is that such death is generally associated with unhealthy lifestyle.

Historical irony provides the view upon historical events through the modern frame of reference. When during some historical period people do not know what will happen in the future and make false assumptions when addressing to particular events. For instance, the World War I was called “The War to End All Wars”. Or when the computers just emerged and were used in the government or academic settings, Chairman of IM, Thomas Watson said the following: “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers”. And today it is difficult to image one’s life, pleasure time or work without a computer.

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Saturday, March 17, 2012

Jack Welch Essay Paper

Jack Welch Essay Paper

Jack Welch was one of the most successful CEO of General Electric Co., who headed the company for twenty years. His work and his personality are highly controversial and evoke absolutely different feelings and emotions that vary from the total condemnation and contempt to admiration and great respect. In this respect, his policies in regard to the personnel of the company were particularly noteworthy since it was due to the change of the corporate culture and relationships between Jack Welch and the rest of the personnel as well as between all people working at the company General Electric Co had managed to make a considerable progress in its financial and market performance, though the costs of such a progress are still severely criticized by the opponents of Jack Welch, whose era at General Electric is viewed as a turning point in the history of the company.

In order to better understand the role of Jack Welch and his contribution to the development of the company, it is necessary to point out that he became the CEO at the period when the company had suffered from serious financial and economic problems. To put it more precisely, the major problems the new CEO had started to solve practically immediately after his appointment were the problem of bureaucracy and the low effectiveness of functioning of the company. It is worthy of mention the fact that Jack Welch almost lost his job at General Electric because of bureaucracy and rigidity of its structure.

As a result, when Jack Welch became the CEO he started his twenty year reign with the radical changes, which, to a significant extent, affected social policy of the company. In fact, his first steps as the CEO perfectly illustrate his attitude to the corporate social responsibilities. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasize that he started the radical changes within the company from a series of dramatic restructurings and layoffs. In terms of this policy, from 1981 to 1985, he cut 100,000 jobs (The Jack Welch Era at General Electric). This policy evoked a sharp criticism of his actions but, in spite of protests of workers and the growing dissatisfaction of ordinary employees as well as manager, Jack Welch continued his policy.

Basically, the consistent reduction of jobs contributed to the increasing effectiveness of the performance of the company, which focused on the market expansion. In terms of this strategy of the development of the company, General Electric acquired RCA in 1985 (The Jack Welch Era at General Electric). In such a way, the company started the realization of the strategy of Jack Welch which attempted to make the company the leader of any industry where it operated.

Nevertheless, the considerable reduction of the personnel was rather the corporate social irresponsibility than responsibility because many lost their jobs. Obviously, the reduction could be conducted in less radical way so that the number of jobs cut could be smaller or, at least, it was possible to prolong the period of job cuts making it not so abrupt and unexpected for employees. From the point of view of corporate social responsibilities such policy would be more employees friendly.

In addition, Jack Welch view on corporate social responsibility was basically limited by the focus on increasing profits. In this respect, it should be said that he expanded the broadness of the stock options program at General Electric from just top executives to nearly one third of all employees. In such a way, Jack Welch increased the motivation of employees to improve their productivity and effectiveness of their work. However, at this point, it is possible to argue that such an improvement of financial position or, to put it more precisely, new form of material motivation of employees, cost too much for thousands of other employees who lost their jobs. Anyway, this trend proves that high profits were the priority in Welch’s corporate social responsibility policy.

Nevertheless, it should be said that Jack Welch managed to meet the major goals of his corporate social responsibility strategy since, in spite of layoffs and significant redundancy, he improved the position of employees and managers whose performance constantly improved and whose contribution in the development of the company was significant. On the other hand, those who failed to progress or who were viewed as ineffective for the company would simply lost their jobs as the bottom 10% of managers did.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that the Jack Welch Era at General Electric Co. was extremely controversial. On the one hand, he managed to make the company the leader of all the industries the company operated in, he improved the position of a considerable part of employees and managers minimizing bureaucracy and including a large part of the personnel in the stock options program, while on the other hand, he was “Neutron” Jack for thousands of employees who lost their jobs.

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The Deerslayer Essay

The Deerslayer Essay

James Fenimore Cooper’s first novel on the adventures of Natty Bumppo, “The Deerslayer” offers a delightful opportunity to “witness” the early American history, the means and ways of behavior and relationships, to get the idea of the forefathers’ dreams and expectations about the future world. The novel also provides the reader with a wonderful insight of the authors’ worldview and basic understanding of what is right and what is wrong. James Fenimore Cooper has gradually created a hero that possesses great virtues and has practically no drawbacks – no wonder the most beautiful woman fell in love with the Deerslayer, for his beliefs and judgments have been so pure, elevated and sincere that hardly anyone could resist his charisma.
It is obvious that the author takes great pride in the protagonist. Cooper has created a great character of manhood – a friend, a warrior, a protector. Nathaniel’s principles of honesty, frankness and justice win the reader’s admiration from the very beginning of the novel, when the Deerslayer swears to tell the truth, and truth only, and to protect the innocent from the aggression of Hurry Harry. Cooper uses the latter to emphasize that inner beauty is far more important and rewarding than the physical one.

Certainly, the Deerslayer seems to be a bit ideal – he is faster, stronger and braver than anyone else. He also has an outstanding strength of mind and great luck that seems to help him meet all the challenges and overcome all the hardships. Through the words of Nathaniel, the Deerslayer, James Fenimore Cooper speaks of truth, faith in God, friendship, peacefulness and philanthropy. He provides the Deerslayer with the wisdom of the greatest power – the belief of peaceful coexistence the latter professes, shows the core ideas of Cooper’s worldview.

The Deerslayer is against cruelty, especially towards women and children; he stands for his friend, Chingachgook, at the mission of saving Hist; he even keeps his word and comes back to the Iroquois after they have let him go for some time. Nathaniel also believes in God and often supports his ideas of peace and truth referring to the Higher Ruler. Surely, Coopers’ heroes are stereotypes; this allowed him to embody his ideas of good and bad in a simple and eloquent manner. Through the novel James Fenimore Cooper speaks of the principles of human behavior and relationships, and the ways that seem, according to his worldview, to be the right ones.

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