Monday, August 27, 2012

Mexican Revolution Research Paper

Research Paper on Mexican Revolution

From the very beginning Mexican revolution caused the anxiety of rulings circles the USA, which had to clarify the neutrality itself, the confession of new governments, weapon sale and property defense of the USA citizens from possible harm. Disappointed in the mode of Diaz, the USA tried to adhere to a policy of non-interference during the revolt of Madero and acknowledged him as a president. However the USA ambassador in Mexico Henry Wilson constantly intrigued against a new government, supported rebels and carried moral responsibility for that he was not able to prevent Madero’s murder, killing a competitor.

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Wilson supposed that nonrecognition of the dictator would be instrumental in his overthrow and conducting of necessary reforms. The direct result of this policy of “strange observers” was by the armed US intervention with the purpose of weapon delivery prevention for the mode of Huerta.

When the German ship with weapon dropped an anchor in Veracruz, Wilson ordered to the naval forces of the United States of America to occupy a city. These actions, causing indignation of Mexicans, threatened to result in war. Only diplomatic mediation of Argentina, Brazil and Chile helped to prevent a large-scale conflict.

After falling of Huerta dictatorship Wilson tried to reconcile quarreling factions of revolutionaries. These attempts had a failure, and after the defeat of the North division the USA acknowledged the government of Carranza. In March 1916 detachment of Villa passed the USA border and accomplished a raid on a border-line small town Columbus in the state of New Mexico. In reply Wilson sent a punitive force under the command of General John J. Pershing. However North Americans met bitter resistance of Mexicans and, suffering the row of defeats, in January 1917 began evacuation of troops from the territory of Mexico.

Acceptance of constitution 1917 intensified the relations between countries, as a row of its laws hurt the interests of North-American companies in Mexico. The new Mexican constitution became the main result of revolution. Carranza, remaining a winner, attached importance to law reforms, which were promised in his revolutionary decrees. The text of the document repeated mainly the positions of constitution 1857, but added three fundamentally important articles. The third article foresaw introduction of universal free education; article number 27 declared all the acres, waters and bowels of the earth on the territory of Mexico to become national property, and also declared the necessity of section of large latifundia and set principles and procedure of conducting of agrarian reform; article 123 was a vast labor code.

In these years the internal political situation in Mexico was noted by the instability which was aggravated by contradictions with the United States. Any change of government was accompanied with revolts in 1923-1924, 1927 and 1929. The implementation of the anticlerical program declared in a constitution caused sharp intensifying of relations of the state with a church. The refuse of clergy to execute positions of constitution forced the closure of church schools, and that is why church answered with the temporal stopping of practice of religious cult in temples from August, 1 1926. During the years beginning from 1926 and up to 1929 a so-called revolt “cristeros” blazed in Mexico. The supporters of church, mainly from peasants, killed the emissaries of government and burned society schools. A revolt was repressed by the governmental troops.

More and more diplomatic conflicts with the USA constantly arose related to the American oil companies in Mexico. The agreement of Bucarelli produced in 1923 by a joint diplomatic commission solved the row of most sharp problems and resulted in acknowledgement of government of Obregon from the side of the USA.

In 1925 as most of the earlier accepted agreements were not followed the government of Calles began to prepare a law about conducting in life the article number 27 from the constitution 1917, touching property and landed domains of the American companies. It intensified the political relations of Mexico and USA again. Things were heading towards the break in diplomatic relations, but the armed intervention which Mexicans considered to be necessary was inevitable. The situation was softened in 1927, when a skilful diplomat Dwight Morrow became the ambassador of the United States in Mexico. Following the course of policy of neighborliness, proclaimed by Roosevelt, he was able to find a compromise in the decision of the sharpest problems.
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