Monday, August 27, 2012

Mexican Revolution Research Paper

Research Paper on Mexican Revolution

From the very beginning Mexican revolution caused the anxiety of rulings circles the USA, which had to clarify the neutrality itself, the confession of new governments, weapon sale and property defense of the USA citizens from possible harm. Disappointed in the mode of Diaz, the USA tried to adhere to a policy of non-interference during the revolt of Madero and acknowledged him as a president. However the USA ambassador in Mexico Henry Wilson constantly intrigued against a new government, supported rebels and carried moral responsibility for that he was not able to prevent Madero’s murder, killing a competitor.

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Wilson supposed that nonrecognition of the dictator would be instrumental in his overthrow and conducting of necessary reforms. The direct result of this policy of “strange observers” was by the armed US intervention with the purpose of weapon delivery prevention for the mode of Huerta.

When the German ship with weapon dropped an anchor in Veracruz, Wilson ordered to the naval forces of the United States of America to occupy a city. These actions, causing indignation of Mexicans, threatened to result in war. Only diplomatic mediation of Argentina, Brazil and Chile helped to prevent a large-scale conflict.

After falling of Huerta dictatorship Wilson tried to reconcile quarreling factions of revolutionaries. These attempts had a failure, and after the defeat of the North division the USA acknowledged the government of Carranza. In March 1916 detachment of Villa passed the USA border and accomplished a raid on a border-line small town Columbus in the state of New Mexico. In reply Wilson sent a punitive force under the command of General John J. Pershing. However North Americans met bitter resistance of Mexicans and, suffering the row of defeats, in January 1917 began evacuation of troops from the territory of Mexico.

Acceptance of constitution 1917 intensified the relations between countries, as a row of its laws hurt the interests of North-American companies in Mexico. The new Mexican constitution became the main result of revolution. Carranza, remaining a winner, attached importance to law reforms, which were promised in his revolutionary decrees. The text of the document repeated mainly the positions of constitution 1857, but added three fundamentally important articles. The third article foresaw introduction of universal free education; article number 27 declared all the acres, waters and bowels of the earth on the territory of Mexico to become national property, and also declared the necessity of section of large latifundia and set principles and procedure of conducting of agrarian reform; article 123 was a vast labor code.

In these years the internal political situation in Mexico was noted by the instability which was aggravated by contradictions with the United States. Any change of government was accompanied with revolts in 1923-1924, 1927 and 1929. The implementation of the anticlerical program declared in a constitution caused sharp intensifying of relations of the state with a church. The refuse of clergy to execute positions of constitution forced the closure of church schools, and that is why church answered with the temporal stopping of practice of religious cult in temples from August, 1 1926. During the years beginning from 1926 and up to 1929 a so-called revolt “cristeros” blazed in Mexico. The supporters of church, mainly from peasants, killed the emissaries of government and burned society schools. A revolt was repressed by the governmental troops.

More and more diplomatic conflicts with the USA constantly arose related to the American oil companies in Mexico. The agreement of Bucarelli produced in 1923 by a joint diplomatic commission solved the row of most sharp problems and resulted in acknowledgement of government of Obregon from the side of the USA.

In 1925 as most of the earlier accepted agreements were not followed the government of Calles began to prepare a law about conducting in life the article number 27 from the constitution 1917, touching property and landed domains of the American companies. It intensified the political relations of Mexico and USA again. Things were heading towards the break in diplomatic relations, but the armed intervention which Mexicans considered to be necessary was inevitable. The situation was softened in 1927, when a skilful diplomat Dwight Morrow became the ambassador of the United States in Mexico. Following the course of policy of neighborliness, proclaimed by Roosevelt, he was able to find a compromise in the decision of the sharpest problems.
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Tuesday, August 14, 2012

The Turk Inscriptions Essay

The Turk Inscriptions Essay

Basically, the development of the Second Turk Empire was accompanied by its growing interaction with other countries which affected considerably the progress of this country. At the same time, important sources of the information about the development of the Second Turk Empire and its relationships with other countries are Turkish inscriptions, including that of Kul Tegin, Bilge Khan, and Tonuquq. It should be pointed out that a considerable part of these inscriptions occupies the relationship of the Second Turk Empire with its neighbors, especially China, which was one of the most powerful states of the region at that epoch. On analyzing the old inscriptions, it is possible to find basic strengths and weaknesses of both the Second Turk Empire and China.
In this respect, it is important to underline that in the old Turk inscriptions, the rules of the Second Turk Empire responded to Chinese rule not just by honoring old Turk institutions, but also imitating and learning from the view of the Turks expressed in the Sima Qian’s account of the Xiongnu.

The strengths and weaknesses of Turks 
On analyzing the old Turks inscriptions, it is possible to estimate that at the epoch of the Second Turk Empire the level of the development of Noman civilization was consistently lower compared to its neighbors, namely China. At the same time, it is necessary to underline that it does not mean that Second Turk Empire was in an absolutely disadvantageous position compared to China. In fact, Second Turk Empire had certain strengths that created ample opportunities for the rapid development of the empire and its further progress.

In this respect, it should be said that one of the major strengths of Second Turk Empire was its geographical position. Due to its geographical position of Second Turk Empire, Turks could develop rapidly. To put it more precisely, the empire could benefit from the progressing international trade since it was close to China and its economic centers and, at the same time, the territory of the empire included important trade routes. In actuality, the country was a kind of bridge between China and Western civilization. In other words, Second Turk Empire could benefit from its transitional position between East and West.

At the same time, it is worthy of mention that the neighboring Chinese economic centers were of a paramount importance for the development of Second Turk Empire and it was another strength of Turks since it contributed to the development of the Turkish economy. To put it more precisely, the growing economic cooperation with China contributed to the urbanization and the general progress of the economy. In this respect, it should be said that according to Dyson-Hudson, “professional empire builders rooted in urban civilizations” (21) that was the case of Second Turk Empire which urbanization was enhanced by its neighborhood to large Chinese economic centers. However, Turks were conscious of potential threats hidden in such neighborhood. For instance, in the KulTegin inscription, the Turk Bilge Qagan warns of the lure of China’s “gold, silver, and silk” (Waldron, 211). Obviously, being more powerful economically, China represented a real threat to the perspective of growth of Second Turk Empire.

Also, it is necessary to take into consideration the existence of the local traditions which were quite strong in Second Turk Empire and contributed consistently to the stable development of the country. What is probably even more important is the fact that the tradition and stable functioning of its major state institutions contributed to the unity of the empire and permitted Second Turk Empire gain a significant position in its international relations.

On the other hand, it should be said that Second Turk Empire was not rigid. Instead, according to the old inscriptions it amply borrowed Chinese experience and paid a lot of attention to criticism of their way of development which could be found in works of Chinese historians, such as Sima Qian.

Nevertheless, Second Turk Empire could hardly overcome its backwardness compared to China. Moreover, one of the major weaknesses of the empire was the fact that it was highly dependent on China. In fact, some specialists estimate that the development of Second Turk Empire was directly dependent on China. For instance, Barfield states that “powerful nomadic empires rose and fell in tandem with native dynasties of China… the steppe and China tended to be mirror images of one another” (9). This means that the development of Second Turk Empire was determined by the progress of China. Consequently, any crisis in China affected Second Turk Empire dramatically.

The strengths and weaknesses of China
Naturally, China, which produced a profound impact on the development of Second Turk Empire, had its own strengths and weaknesses. To put it more precisely, it should be said that China was apparently more advanced economically and technologically compared to Second Turk Empire. For instance, according to Chinese sources (Qian), neighbors of China were consistently less developed not only in the field of economy but also in the field of warfare since their strategy and tactics were considered to be not so advanced as Chinese ones.

However, it is necessary to underline that the tactics of Turks in the warfare was more flexible since they did not paid so much attention to the necessity to maintain face and could, for instance, retreat without any hesitations as long as it was beneficial for them that may be viewed as a weakness of Chinese tactics. In this respect, it is possible to refer to Sima Qian who compares Turks tactics to that of Chinese, the former, “when it is to their advantage they advance; when not they retreat as they see no shame in retreat” (Qian, 142).

At the same time, the economic advancement of China engendered growing problems since external threats grew more and more significant. At any rate, as China progressed do did its neighbors and, therefore, potential competitors or opponents. Also, it should be said that Chinese traditions based on ideas of Confucianism were quite rigid while compared to Turks it was hardly possible to speak about the total ideological unity of the country.

Conclusion: recommendations to Turks to reach the level of power of China 
Taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that China was more advanced compared to Second Turk Empire and the old Turk inscriptions prove this fact. At the same time, it is also possible to find some potential ways of overcoming such backwardness of Second Turk Empire. In this respect, the old Turk inscriptions are similar to works of Chinese historians, such as Sima Qian. Basically, they recommend minimizig the gap between Second Turk Empire by means of remaining devoted to the national traditions. What is meant here is the fact that the old inscriptions recommend to honor old Turkish traditions and existing institutions. In this respect, the similarity to Qian’s ideas of being devoted to the norms of Chinese traditions and ideology, including ideas of Confucianism, which were the ideological basis of Chinese culture and lifestyle. The same role played traditions and religious views of Turks in Second Turk Empire. As a result, the focus on the maintenance of the traditional lifestyle contributes to the social stability and, therefore, opens perspectives of the steady development of the empire.

On the other hand, it is necessary to underline that one of the most perspective way to overcome the backwardness of Second Turk Empire was to borrow the experience of China. In such a way, Second Turk Empire could simply follow the example of more advanced China that could provide ample opportunities for the economic progress, while maintenance its old traditions could contribute to the social stability. In such a way, these two factors could be determinant in the further progress of Second Turk Empire making it a powerful country which could become equal to China.

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Thursday, August 9, 2012

Essay on E-Commerce

Essay on E-Commerce

The modern world is characterized by the rapid world of new technologies which became an important part of socio-economic life. In fact, new technologies are rapidly penetrating in all spheres of life affecting absolutely all people and, what is more important, they are spreading worldwide contributing to the creation of the New Economy. The New Economy is based on the wide implementation and rapid spread of new information and communication technologies. In recent years, there have appeared numerous works in literature dedicated to the problem of the development of New Economy, especially e-commerce, its perspectives and potential. Basically, numerous studies assess positively the current trends in the world economy but some specialists, such as Mohammad Naim Chaker emphasize that this problem is still under-researched and it is necessary to carefully and critically evaluate the perspectives, potential, and effects of the proliferation of the New economy, information technologies and communication on socio-economic and managing equilibrium that existed in the conventional economy (2005, p.58).
On analyzing the current economic situation M.N. Chaker points out that the New Economy is based on the wide use of information technologies and communication (2005, p.58). In fact, the word economy, especially the economy of well-developed countries is really changing. In the modern world information and knowledge play increasingly more and more important role to the extent that often the investments in IT proves to be even more effective than investments in conventional industrial development (Summers, 1992, p.9).

At the same time, it should be said that e-commerce as a constituent part of the New Economy offers a lot of new opportunities and seem to be quite convenient for customers. In this respect, the author points out that the New Economy really offers larger opportunities to customers since they can use a variety of services and choose from a huge variety of goods which they cannot find anywhere else but in the virtual world of e-commerce. For instance, he states that “the sheer number of stores that can be visited online far exceeds even the most densely populated retail areas in industrial countries” (2005, p.58). In such a way, the New Economy may be viewed as a positive phenomenon since, according to numerous researches it can facilitate business-customer relationships making it more personal and more customer-oriented (Han, 1997, p.27).

Also, it is worthy of mention that the New Economy is rapidly progressing and spreading worldwide. In such a way, it is possible to estimate that in the nearest future the New Economy will produce more significant impact on the development of the world economy (Han, 1997, p.29). The current trends in the world economy consistently contribute to the progress of the New Economy due to the process of globalization which makes countries closer to each other eliminating geographical and financial barriers on the movement of international capital. In such a situation, the New Economy and e-commerce in particular may be viewed as effective tool that can be widely applied in terms of global economy, improving the quality of services and goods available to customers worldwide.

However, in spite of such optimistic perspectives, M.N. Chaker is quite skeptical about the current progress of the World Economy and its effects. In fact, he argues that it is necessary to analyze in depth its effects on various spheres of human life because, as he predicts, it can misbalance the world socio-economic development (2005, p.59). To put it more precisely, he speaks about the possibility of various disequilibria, including corporate disequilibrium, labor market disequilibrium, social disequilibrium, innovation disequilibrium, and development disequilibrium.

Speaking about corporate disequilibrium, M.N. Chaker argues that the reality is far from optimistic forecasts. For instance, he emphasizes that technology is not cheap and are not always available to little companies. Furthermore, the development of e-commerce and the New Economy at large may be accompanied by the new risks such as the spread of frauds and viruses in the virtual world. Furthermore, M.N. Chaker underlines that “regulatory mechanisms for e-business are not yet in place in many countries”, while “many business transactions are still depend on trust” (2005, p.59). This means that there is still the lack of control over e-business that enhances the threat of frauds making it unreliable and quite risky compared to conventional business. In response to these potential threats the author recommends to develop a new corporate culture that will meet the demands of the New Economy.

At the same time, the New Economy may lead to the labor market disequilibrium. N.M. Chake argues that the development of new technologies lead to the consistent shift in the labor market (2005, p.60). To put it more precisely, professions related to IT and communications are growing popular while conventional professions gradually degrade while the gap in the level of income grows respectively to the changes in the labor market. It is worthy of mention that IT specialists are currently among the most well-paid jobs in the modern labor market, but the mismatch refers not only to the level of income but to the level of skills as well (Chake, 2005, p.60). Consequently, there is growing polarity between well-paid, highly qualified specialists and the rest of employees.

The same trends are typical to social disequilibrium. The author underlines that the modern networking contributes to the disproportionate digital divide where different social groups are more or less involved in the e-commerce. The divide depends on various factors, such as age, country of residence, social status, etc. The solution of this problem may be found only with the assistance of international developmental agencies, such as IMF, the World Bank and others (Chake, 2005, p.60).

Finally, there are innovation and developmental disequilibria which basically sprang out from the difference in the technological development of various companies and even countries (Chake, 2005, p.61). To put it more precisely, new technologies can put a company in an advantageous position compared to competitors or even lead to the monopoly if the company invents a totally new product or service, while countries are characterized by the different level of technological and scientific development and, therefore, have different and unequal potential and perspectives. In this respect, Chake underlines that the government should play the key role in the legislation in the domain of new technologies and e-commerce and state support and control of their development (2005, p.61).

Thus, it is possible to conclude that the development of the New Economy, in spite of optimistic forecasts of various specialists, is accompanied by numerous threats that can lead to significant disequilibria that latter can consistently change the existing social order and deteriorate socio-economic life of society contributing to the growing inequality between rich and qualified, on the one and, and poor and low-qualified, on the other. In such a situation, the government and international developmental agencies should regulate the development of New Economy and maintain the balance.
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Wednesday, August 8, 2012

Essay on International Labor

International Labor. Positive and Negative Sides

Businesses can greatly benefit from globalization and usage of international labor force. However, there are pros and cons to using international labor.

Many businesses internationalize for economical reasons – they are looking for better conditions for their operations. Modern technologies made it possible and very easy to conduct business all over the world. The use of satellites, e-mails, faxes and the Internet makes workers all over the world very accessible. Many companies move abroad because of cheap labor force. One of the examples is India – the country offers high concentration of computer skills and low cost of labor. Many companies outsource their operations to various Indian cities.
According to the Commerce Department, the United States will need 1 million new information-technology workers over the next decade. Already, 300,000 job vacancies exist in this field. Farmers are also complaining of worker shortages in low-paying agricultural jobs. The Unites States currently limits the number of workers who can enter the country on temporary work visas, however, this number might be raised to fill labor deficiencies in both high- and low-paying jobs.

Many members of the business community say that they cannot find enough multilingual and technically trained workers in their country to help keep the nation competitive in the global economy. Therefore, they support recruiting highly educated and trained foreign workers to fill this void. In U.S., proponents of increasing the number of visas for agricultural workers also think that foreign laborers would fill a hole in the labor market, not take jobs from Americans. They argue that many farms and food processing industries already employ illegal immigrants because of the tight U.S. labor market. Advocates say that more temporary work visas would encourage farmers to hire legal workers, thereby decreasing the flow of illegal immigrants across American border.

Many corporations hire the best professionals from all over the world. The easiest way to create a global company is through the means of the Internet. Google is one of the best examples. The company is famous all over the world. It adjusts its service engine and other products to the needs of many markets and cooperates with many local companies. Google has its employees in various corners of the world which helps to adjust the service for the local users.

There are also drawbacks and numerous opponents of using foreign workforce. Critics in U.S. and Europe say that jobs are being lost to both legal and illegal workers. They argue that foreign information-technology workers are not necessarily better skilled but are more willing to accept less pay and are less likely to challenge poor working conditions because they depend on their sponsor company for their legal right to remain in the country. Some opponents say that the ability of employers to import workers depresses wages in both high-tech and the agricultural industries.

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Critical Reasoning Essay

Critical Reasoning Essay

Being an integral part of analytical science, critical thinking and reasoning present a unique tool for in-depth evaluation of almost any material. Let us try to analyze the passage from particular text. The current passage presents a discussion on a policy of greenhouse gas emissions reduction, accepted during Hague conference. The author criticizes the policy of emission credits that allows industrial plants polluting the environment to trade with facilities with low emission rates, buying the emission credits from them.
The given text has a goal of convincing a reader that a greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy is an absurd practice. The author turns to rather wide audience, aiming his speech to a mass reader. The question posed in this writing covers a problem of environmental pollution as well as ignorance of big politics. The author used a variety of concepts, from clear official facts to metaphorical examples. The language and style used indicate some biased interpretation of material, as the writer expresses his viewpoint emotionally in some passages (where examples of crime reduction in Canada are provided). However, this bias is covert, as author attempts to sound unprejudiced.

The information presented may be looked at as an argument, based on the following explicitly presented thesis – the newly accepted policy on gas is headed on improving statistical indicators rather than on negative effect reduction. The argument framework looks as follows: premise 1 –> premise 2 –> premise 3 –> conclusion. I have identified the next argument in the given article:

1) There is an action named X (facilities with bad indicators purchase statistics from those with permissible level). 2) X is accepted appropriate for A (gas industry). 3) A is similar with B (environmental pollution and crime level both are acute social problems).

Conclusion: Thus, X is appropriate for B too (it is possible to employ this practice for crime reduction).

The author turns to the pseudo-logical evidence in his message. He states that it would be proper to employ the policy of gas emissions credits in other fields of social life. He turns to the example of Canada, which can purchase the statistics of low crime level from Denmark in order to show better numbers to the public. The argument has a metaphorical meaning in order to emphasize an absurd nature of this policy. Although there is a certain irony in this argument, it is rather effective, as the conclusion sounds persuasive for audience. This inductive type of argument expresses an author’s observation, employing a deliberate logical fallacy (false analogy). Implicitly applying the analogy of two different areas of life, the author of the present article demonstrates nonsense of criticized policy. Nevertheless, the argument presented is of no doubt valid, as it is organized in acceptable form. To sum up I may conclude that the current text presents a valid argument with a deliberate logical fallacy (false analogy) applied in order to emphasize a thesis statement. Although the truth of this argument’s conclusion is questionable, the entire soundness of the author’s logic is indisputable.

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